Inkjet printing allows the contactless deposition of coatings on various substrates. Drops with an exact defined amount of material are placed on predefined positions. Thus, the technique is highly economical in material use with low waste production. By using digital process chains the fabrication of highly individualized products is feasible. Coatings with different functions (e.g. electrical conductivity, waveguides, organic electronics, …) can be produced through the use of functional inks. The production of functional coatings or devices requires multilayer inkjet printing. Therefore, inks have to be tuned and optimized to the material and geometry of the used substrates. This can be done by suitable substrate pretreatments and respective ink curing techniques. Currently, inkjet substrates are usually flat but individualized coatings on non-planar substrates grow in importance.

Voxel Printing” can be considered as special form of additive inkjet printing. A voxel (“volumetric pixel”) represents a grid point in three-dimensional space. Voxel based 3D printers use inkjet printheads and curable liquid photopolymeric inks. The creation of objects is based on the direct curing of the photopolymers after placement. Each single drop represents one voxel. This allows a precise control of the structure (high resolution) and of the properties of the printed objects. Complex geometries with sophisticated details and delicate features can be achieved due to this high layer resolution. By using different inks in one printing job digital material objects can be created. Digital materials have unique properties by mixing of materials on the voxel scale. However, currently available materials are not always suitable for functional devices. A broader range of suitable materials is therefore of high interest. For example, implementing inks with metallic nanoparticles can lead to printing of conducting paths in 3D printed objects.

PROFACTOR deals with the following challenges in process and material development:

  • Substrate pretreatment and curing strategies: Good ink adhesion on substrates sometimes requires a pretreatment of the given substrate (in combination with the respective ink optimization). Fixation of the printed pattern is based on the curing mechanism of the ink (e.g. UV-light, solvent evaporation with IR radiation,). For some ink systems a further post processing is necessary to fully exploit the functionality (e.g. sintering of electrically conductive inks).
  • Free form surfaces: Also freeform surfaces have to be printed reliably – e.g. by using robotic control of the printhead. The distance of the printhead to the substrate is of crucial importance for inkjet printing thus tracking of the printhead in accordance to the substrate topology is very important. On free form surfaces fixation of the printed patterns is a key topic.
  • Material development: The inks have to be modified to suit the requirements of the additive processes. The ink adhesion on the substrate surface can be improved by optimizing the chemical composition of the inks. In ink development and optimization, the compatibility of the ink with the materials used in the printheads is a relevant topic.
addmanu is a national flag ship project for research, development und the establishment of additive manufacturing. There are four topics are defined as key technologies for additive manufacturing: lithograph based manufacturing LBF), Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), selective laser welding (SLM) a...+
Many „intellignet products“, that can be thought of today,  cannot be fabricated with existing production methods or cannot be fabricated in a cost efficient way. These are - among others - especially individualized products with directly integrated sensors, LED, OLEDs, displays, etc. Additive ...+
Inkjet printing is a fast growing technology with a widespread field of applica-tions and therefore a special challenge for the manufacturers. Due to the widespread applications the production of the inks has to be modifiable. Therefore a detailed observation and control of the process is an essenti...+
Im Projekt iTextil widmet sich PROFACTOR – ausgehend vom globalen Preiswettkampf bei Textilprodukten der Entwicklung technischen, funktioneller Textilien. Im Fokus stehen Nischenanwendungen wie  Schutzausrüstungen, medizinische Überwachungssysteme, technische Textilien und der Heim- und Haus Be...+
Windows are of crucial importance for the energy efficiency of buildings. This applies above all to low-energy houses. The cost-effective production of windows with reduced weight, low U-value and the possibility of generating energy is a technological challenge. In the MEM4WIN project, PROFACTOR an...+
The NextFactory project focuses on a radical innovation in the production of micro-components. Functional elements such as solar modules, micropumps and the like are to be manufactured in a single machine. Production in the machine takes place layer by layer. The following technologies are combined:...+
Microsystems are usually manufactured with expensive and highly specialized tools, changeover times are long. Production in small batch sizes and optimization based on prototypes is hardly possible for components with mechatronic microcomponents - pumps, valves or diaphragms. The SmartLam project is...+
Der individuell bedruckte Sportschuh ist Realität. Losgröße 1 ist auch für die Textilindustrie ein Thema. Für einen individuell bedruckten Sportschuh gibt es zwei Herangehensweisen: 1. Das Polyester wird vorab flach bedruckt und erst dann als Schuh drapiert und mit einer Sohle versehen. 2. Der ...+
Die Bekleidungsproduktion der Zukunft wieder nach Europa zurückzuholen. Urban Manufacturing sieht die Stadt als neuen Produktionsraum, in welchem hochwertige, designorientierte Produkte entstehen. Zudem schafft Urban Manufacturing eine neue Nähe zwischen ProduzentInnen und KonsumentInnen, die heut...+
By the year 2025, 22% of the European population will be aged over 65. Improving the life quality of Europe’s increasingly elderly population is one of the most pressing challenges our society faces today. One of the most common implants in elderly population are dental implants. Every dental impl...+
INKplant prints the future of regenerative medicine to face the ageing of the European population   PROFACTOR coordinates ambitious EC project INKplant with nineteen partners from universities, research centers, SMEs, multinational corporations, and hospitals. Since January 2021 a multidisciplinary...+
The international research project DIMAP is trend-setting for additive manufacturing and the possibilities of 3D printing. Stratasys - the world leader in 3D printers - is one of twelve partners in the project. The project uses the Objet Connex 3 3D printer. The perspectives of 3D printing for indus...+


Kastner, T. Faury, H. M. Außerhuber, T: Obermüller, H. Leichtfried, M. J. Haslinger, E. Liftinger, J. Innerlohinger, I. Gnatiuk, D. Holzinger, T. Lederer; Silver-based reactive ink for inkjet-printing of conductive lines on textiles, Microelectronic Engineering 176 (2017) 84-88 pdf

Stefanie Schlager, Marianne Haberbauer, Anita Fuchsbauer, Christine Hemmelmair, Liviu Mihai Dumitru, G. Hinterberger,  Helmut Neugebauer, Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci; Bio-electrocatalytic Application of Microorganisms for Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Methane, ChemSusChem; doi:10.1002/cssc.201600963R1

Scholz, A. Brunet, T. Müller, A. Fuchsbauer; Requirements for 3D Printed Applications using Novel Nanoparticle Enhanced Digital Materials: 3D printed robotic and electronic applications, Proceedings of CENICS 2016, The Ninth International Conference on Advances in Circuits, Electronics and Micro-electronics

Scholz, A. Brunet, T. Müller, A. Fuchsbauer; Novel Nanoparticle Enhanced Digital Materials for 3D Printing and their Application Shown for the Robotic and Electronic Industry: Introduction on the DIMAP project, Proceedings of CENICS 2016, The Ninth International Conference on Advances in Circuits, Electronics and Micro-electronics

Kabla, L. Schranzhofer, A. El Razek, F. de la Vega; Novel Conductive Inks for 3D printing – Preliminary Studies on Silver Ink Development and Curing Strategies, Proceedings of CENICS 2016, The Ninth International Conference on Advances in Circuits, Electronics and Micro-electronics

Stefanie Schlager, Liviu Mihai Dumitru, Marianne Haberbauer, Anita Fuchsbauer, Helmut Neugebauer, Daniela Hiemetsberger, Annika Wagner, Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci; Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol by direct electron injection into immobilized enzymes on a modified electrode, ChemSusChem, doi: 10.1002/cssc.201501496

Tatzel, B. Einwögerer, I. Bergmair, N. Worapattrakul, B. Khudhair, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer; Micromirror Arrays for Smart Personal Environments, Nanoscience Advances in CBRN Agents Detection, Information and Energy Security, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology 2015, pp 505-510, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-9697-2_52, Online ISBN 978-94-017-9697-2

Fuchsbauer, B. Unterauer, M. Wagner, H. J. Egelhaaf,; Organic PV inkjet inks for energy harvesting with low-cost OPVs in smart windows, accepted World Sustainable Energy Days 2015 Young Researchers’ Conference Proceeding + poster

Kastner, O. Lorret, A. Rank, C. Schwarzinger, B. Dittert, M. Mühlberger; Nanocontact Printing Stamp Material based on Bi-functionalized Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes, European Polymer Journal 65 (2015) 221 -231, available online 22 November 2014, [doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.11.015

Losurdo, Maria; Yi, Congwen; Suvorova, Alexandra; Rubanov, Sergey; Kim, Tong-Ho; Giangregorio, Maria; Jiao, Wenyuan; Bergmair, Iris; Bruno, Giovanni; Brown, April; Demonstrating the Capability of the High-Performance Plasmonic Gallium-Graphene Couple, ACS Nano 8 (2014) 3031-3041, [DOI: 10.1021/nn500472r

Barbara Unterauer, Michael Rohn, C. Wögerer, Dieter Holzinger and Michael Mühlberger; A Combination of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Inkjet Inks to Obtain New Functional Inks, Proceedings 4M 2013 doi: 10.3850/978-981-07-7247-5_343

Maria Losurdo, Iris Bergmair, Babak Dastmalchi, Tong-Ho Kim, Maria M. Giangregroio, Wenyuan Jiao, Giuseppe V. Bianco, April S. Brown, Kurt Hingerl, Giovanni Bruno; Graphene as an Electron Shuttle for Silver De-oxidation: Removing a Key Barrier to Plasmonics and Metamaterials for SERS in the Visible, Advanced functional Materials, Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.20130313

Maria Losurdo, Iris Bergmair, Maria M. Giangergorio, Babak Dastmalchi, Giuseppe V. Bianco, Christian Helgert, Ekaterina Pshenay-Severin, Matthias Falkner, Thomas Pertsch, Ernst-Bernhard Kley, Uwe Huebner, Marc A. Verschurren, Michael Muehlberger, Kurt Hingerl, Giovanni Bruno; Enhancing Chemical and Optical Stability of Silver Nanostructures by Low-Temperature Hydrogen Atoms Processing, The Journal of Physical Chemistry (2012), 116 (43), pp 23004/

Borislav Vasić, Saša Lazović, Nevena Puač, Zoran Lj. Petrović, Radmila Kostić, Radoš Gajić, Jozef Humlíček, Maria Losurdo, Giovanni Bruno, Iris Bergmair, Kurt Hingerl; Spectroscopic ellipsometry of few-layer graphene, J. Nanophoton. 5, 051809 (Jun 08, 2011); [

Bergmair, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, M. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, U. Hübner, C. Helgert, T. Pertsch, E.-B. Kley, R. Raluca, M. Kafesaki, N.-H. Shen, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Mühlberger, K. Hingerl; Optimization of silver for a 200 nm Fishnet grating fabricated by NIL, Metamaterials ‘2011: The Fifth International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics, p66, ISBN 978-952-67611-0-7

Dittert, A. Gavrilovic, S. Schwarz, P. Angerer, H. Steiner, R. Schöftner; Phase content controlled TiO 2 nanoparticles using the MicroJetReactor technology, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 31 (2011) 2475-2480

Bernd Dittert, Iris Bergmair, Roland Haubner, Rainer Schöftner; Micro fluid contact printing of sol–gel-derived in-situ formed catalysts for the structured growth of carbon nanotubes, Surface and Coatings Technology 204 (21-22) 2010, 3647-3651

Chouiki, R. Schoeftner; Inkjet printing of inorganic sol-gel inks and control of geometrical characteristics, Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 58 (2010) 91-95

Rollett, M. Schroeder, K. P. Schneider, R. Fischer, F. Kaufmann, R. Schöftner, G. M. Guebitz; Covalent immobilisation of protease and laccase substrates onto siloxanes, Chemosphere 80 (8) 2010 922-928

Accettola, G. Guebitz and R. Schöftner; Siloxane removal from biogas by biofiltration: biodegradation studies, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 10 (2) 2008 211-218

A.Fuchsbauer, D. Holzinger; Inkjet basierte Additive Fertigung, EU Projekte DIMAP und NextFactory, Austrian 3D-Printing Forum

Kabla, L. Schranzhofer, A. El Razek, F. de la Vega; Novel Conductive Inks for 3D Printing,

Köpplmayr, M. Mühlberger; Inkjet printing of polylactide on substrates prepared by Fused Deposition Modeling and its potential for selective surface finishing, Danube Vltava Sava Polymer Meeting 2015

Köpplmayr, M. Mühlberger; Inkjet printing of polylactide on substrates prepared by Fused Deposition Modeling and its potential for selective surface finishing, Polymer Processing Society Conference 2015

Kastner, F. Tomarchio, N. Decorde, M. Wagner, I. Gnatiuk, G. Hesser, D. Holzinger, K. Bretterbauer, I. Bergmair, A.C. Ferrari; Graphene Ink as Replacement for PEDOT:PSS in Organic Solar Cells, Österreichische Chemietage 2015

Kastner, A. Fuchsbauer, F. Tomarchio, N. Decorde, M. Wagner, I. Gnatiuk, D. Holzinger, B. Unterauer, K. Bretterbauer, A.C. Ferrari; P3HT:PCBM and graphene inks for organic solar cells, Micro and Nanoengineering 2015 MNE 2015

Unterauer; SmartLam – A generative manufacturing-based concept for flexible, scalable manufacturing of microsystems, Add+it 2015

Anita Fuchsbauer; Inkjet printed OPV, european smart windows conference

Anita Fuchsbauer, Barbara Unterauer, Olivier Lorret, Michael Wagner, Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf; Printhead Compatible Inkjet Inks for Organic Solar Cell Application, MRS fall meeting

Barbara Unterauer, Michael Rohn, C. Wögerer, Dieter Holzinger, Michael Mühlberger, Christian Wögerer; A Combination of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Inkjet Inks to Obtain New Functional Inks, 4M Conference 2013

Iris Bergmair, Barbara Einwögerer, Wolfgang Hackl, Thomas Fromherz, Maria Losurdo, Giovanni Bruno, Nalin Rupesinghe, Christoph Giesen, Michael Heuken, Thomas Müller, Michael Mühlberger; Transfer of structured graphene on metal contacts for realization of graphene based devices, MNE2013

Julia Kastner, Olivier Lorret, Bernd Dittert, Mathieu Salaun, Marc Zelsmann, Michael Mühlberger; Tunable surface Chemistry with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS), Österreichische Chemietage 2013

Wolfgang Hackl; Structuring of Graphene by nanoimprint lithography, Nanoforum 2013 JKU

Thomas Faury, Michael Mühlberger; Inkjet-printing of working stamp materials for UV-based nanoimprint lithography, NNT2016

Faury, A. Fuchsbauer, M. Mühlberger; Inkjet-printing of working stamp material for UV-based nanoimprint lithography, MNE2016

A.Fuchsbauer, M. Mühlberger, M. J. Haslinger, T. Köpplmayr, H. Außerhuber, T. Faury, K. Bretterbauer, H. Leichtfried, V. Tober, T. Lederer, H. Fachberger; Towards inkjet printing on 3D printed surfaces for NIL applications, MNE2016

Thomas Obermüller, Thomas Faury, Helene Außerhuber, Julia Kastner, Thomas Lederer; Silver-based reactive ink for inkjet-printing of conductive lines on textiles, MNE2016

Fuchsbauer, B. Unterauer, J. Kastner, M. Wagner, F. Tomarchio, N. Decorde, A.C. Ferrari, I. Gnatiuk, D. Holzinger; P3HT:PCBM and graphene inks for organic solar cells, MRS fall meeting

Anita Fuchsbauer/Barbara Unterauer, Michael Wagner/Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf; Organic PV inkjet inks for energy harvesting in smart windows, world sustainable energy days young researchers conference

Danzberger, M. Rohn, E. Sonntag, C. Forsich, R. Kirchner, A. Rank, B. Einwögerer, M. Mühlberger, E. Trappl, D. Heim, H. Schift, I. Bergmair; Bio-Inspired Inlays for Injection Molding Fabricated by UV-NIL to Influence The Friction Behaviour of Ceramic Surfaces, NNT2014

Julia Kastner, Iurii Gnatiuk, Barbara Unterauer, Olivier Lorret, Iris Bergmair, Barbara Einwögerer, Michael Rohn, Dieter Holzinger, Michael Mühlberger; Fabrication of Graphene/Graphite Flakes via Liquid Phase Exfoliation of Graphite in Alcohols, MNE2013

Olivier Lorret, Julia Kastner, Mathieu Salaün, Marc Zelsmann, Barbara Kosmala, Michael A. Morris, Michael Mühlberger; Multi-functionalized Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS): Promising Materials for surface chemistry., Euronanoforum 2013

Barbara Unterauer, Michael Rohn, Klaus Zimmer, Michael Mühlberger; Characterization of Functionalized, Magnetic Nanoparticles, Euronanoforum 2013

J. Kastner, I. Gnatiuk, B. Unterauer, I. Bergmair, O. Lorret, G. Hesser, K. Hingerl, D. Holzinger, M. Mühlberger; Liquid Phase Exfoliation of graphite in alcohols, Graphene 2013

Iris Bergmair, Barbara Einwögerer, Wolfgang Hackl, Thomas Fromherz, Maria Losurdo, Giovanni Bruno, Nalin Rupesinghe, Christoph Giesen, Michael Heuken, Thomas Müller, Michael Mühlberger; Transfer printing of graphene structures onto gold contacts for transistors and photo detectors, Graphene 2013

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DI Daniel Fechtig PhD
Head of Functional Surfaces and Nanostructures

+43 72 52 885 423

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